City

The city is relatively large and permanent. The United Nations , in 1988, defines the city as follows:

The city is a place of high population density and political , administrative, and historical centrality, in which the main activity of the people is non-agricultural and has urban coordinates run through a local government.

 

Indicators of city segregation from the village are:

  1. Breadth
  2. Status and type of economic activity
  3. Degree of employment and social stratification
  4. The degree of complexity of relationships and relationships
  5. How to use social , cultural , economic and political institutions
  6. Amount and composition of the population.

 

The word

The oldest part of the city is Gonabad, and the world’s oldest and longest qanat is in the city.

The word “city” is derived from the Middle Persian Persian and the ancient Persian language χşaθra.  Xšaθra in the ancient Persian means the kingdom.

 

Definition

In the world

Urban in the English language and Urbain in French, comes from the Latin Urbanus root, urban or urban , and Urbs , referring to the city of Rome .

 

City, in recent decades, geographic , sociological, econometric , demographic and some other sciences have introduced several definitions of the city, and sociologists such as Engels and Marx have identified the city as the focus of population , production tools, capital , needs, and requirements Etc., know that the division of social labor has taken place there. Geographers recognize the city as artificial landscapes of streets, buildings, structures, and structures that make urban life possible. Historians define the city according to its age, and according to economists, the city refers to a place where the dominant subsistence of its inhabitants is not based on agriculture . Demographers also consider the population of a point to be the metropolis of that point. The urban designers of the city think that the complex is an organized organization, consisting of three main components of the body, imagination, and activity, which is constantly evolving. The urbanists know the city as a place where human beings descend and begin to think.

According to various perspectives, different definitions for the city are presented. In most attempts, for the basic definition of the city, two criteria are considered:

Determine the size of the city in terms of population

Determination of the quotient for population density (relative population).

The second criterion is the criterion that Mills endorses and relies on for defining the city.

A city is a region in which land is used more for building purposes than for other production factors, especially capital , as compared to the surrounding areas. Since people usually work in areas close to their home, so the city is described with two other factors, namely, more employment and more production of goods and services , as well. In general, a city is a region where the ratio of production and other factors of production to the earth, in it, is greater than the neighboring regions. In general, cities have sophisticated systems for health , water and electricity , land use , housing and transportation, and they are far away from the simplicity of the rulers in the countryside.

City

Two Criteria for the Basic Definition

According to various perspectives, different definitions for the city are presented. In most attempts, for the basic definition of the city, two criteria are considered:

 

  1. Determine the size of the city in terms of population
  2. Determination of the quotient for population density (relative population).

The second criterion is the criterion that Mills endorses and relies on for defining the city.

 

A city is a region in which land is used more for building purposes than for other production factors, especially capital , as compared to the surrounding areas. Since people usually work in areas close to their home, so the city is described with two other factors, namely, more employment and more production of goods and services , as well. In general, a city is a region where the ratio of production and other factors of production to the earth, in it, is greater than the neighboring regions.  In general, cities have sophisticated systems for health , water and electricity , land use , housing and transportation, and they are far away from the simplicity of the rulers in the countryside.

 

In Iran

The city is locally located within the legal boundaries of the geographical area of the department and has structural features, employment, and other factors, with its own characteristics, so that the majority of its permanent residents in the business of business, business , industry Agriculture , services and administrative activities, and in the field of urban services , has a relative self-sufficiency, and has a center for social , economic , cultural and political exchanges of the sphere of absorption and influence of its own, and at least, has a population of 10,000 people.  At every point of importance and importance, the formation of the municipality is necessary; if not, its population will not reach five thousand; the Ministry of the Interior can, in that place, order the formation of associations and municipalities. [10] In ancient Persian, they referred to the “city” as “clay”, which meant the kingdom. In Avesta, this term was “ruthless”, and the word “city” in Farsi is derived from the same Avesta word.

Since 1335, certain criteria have been considered for converting a village into a city, including having at least 5,000 people. This amount increased to 10,000 in 1365, until the law was re-enacted in 1371, the minimum was removed, and every point had a municipality known as the city.  This change in the law during the decade of 1375 to 1378 resulted in the birth of more than 400 cities and played an important role in increasing the percentage of Iranian urbanization to over 70%.

The word “city” in ancient times had a broader meaning, meaning country, province, state, and government. This term later became more and more meaningful as time went by, and the city became its current meaning.

 

The concept of the word city in the ancient times

The word “city” is closely related to the languages of the eastern parts of Iran with the word “kenta” (“kanta”, “slender”), which means “fence and barrow”; for example, in Samarkand (Samarkand), whose name was Marakand in ancient times. In the provinces of eastern Iran, the term kanta-kantha means the city is reserved. It is believed that in ancient times it used to be a fence, a wall and a baro which, in another way, had the name ked-kad in the meaning of the house. [15] In the stones of the third century AD they spoke to the province, stry (in Pahlavi texts = sahr “City”), and the regions were also called the city. While the center of the province or capital is called “city”. The “city” was run by the “mayor” who in the third century probably was a local king and appointed the rulers of the provinces as the king of the king. Regions or cities were run by a “city” and a “priest”. A city or district was divided into “villages”, which may consist of each of several villages. The smallest unit of the “Ten” was a peasant or ten-headed chairman.