Vakhtang I Gorgasali (Georgian: ვახტანგ I გორგასალი) (c. 439 or 443 – 502 or 522), of the Chosroid dynasty, was a king of Iberia, natively known as Kartli (eastern Georgia) in the second half of the 5th and first quarter of the 6th century.
He led his people, in an ill-fated alliance with the Byzantine Empire, into a lengthy struggle against Sasanian Iranian hegemony, which ended in Vakhtang’s defeat and weakening of the kingdom of Iberia. Tradition also ascribes him reorganization of the Georgian Orthodox Church and foundation of Tbilisi, Georgia’s modern capital.
Dating Vakhtang’s reign is problematic. Ivane Javakhishvili assigns to Vakhtang’s rule the dates c. 449–502 while Cyril Toumanoff suggests the dates c. 447–522. Furthermore, Toumanoff identifies Vakhtang with the Iberian king Gurgenes known from Procopius‘ Wars of Justinian.
Vakhtang is a subject of the 8th or 11th century vita attributed to Juansher, which intertwines history and legend into an epic narrative, hyperbolizing Vakhtang’s personality and biography. This literary work has been a primary source of Vakhtang’s image as an example warrior-king and statesman, which has preserved in popular memory to this day.
He emerged as one of the most popular figures in Georgia’s history already in the Middle Ages and has been canonized by the Georgian Orthodox Church as The Holy and Right-Believing King Vakhtang (Georgian: წმინდა დიდმოწამე მეფე ვახტანგი) and is commemorated on November 30 (O.S.: December 13).